REPUBLIC OF THE UNION OF MYANMAR
- Unitary presidential republic
- Capital: Naypyidaw
- Population (2014): 51,419,420
- Currency: Myanmar Kyat
- Area: 676.578 kmq
- Languages: Burmese and other recognized regional languages (Jinghpo, Kaya, Shan, Karen, Chin, Rakhine, Mon)
- Religion: Buddhism 89%, Christian 4%, Islam 4%
- Member of: ASEAN, ONU, WTO e ASEM
Geographical And Climatic Information
Myanmar (formerly Burma) is the largest state in the region of Indochina. It faces the Golf of Bengal and the Andaman Sea and is bordered from west to east by Bangladesh, India, China, Laos and Thailand. The country can be divided into four main regions: a mountainous region to the north and north-west, the great high plateau of Shan, the central alluvial basin, (the Irrawaddy Basin) and the Tenasserim coastal region. The Irrawaddy river has a navigable length of 1200 km and constitutes the principal artery of communication of the country. In its southernmost section the river broadens into a large delta of over 20,000 sq km, characterized by the uniformity of its canals and of the rice paddies, which occupy nearly all of its area. Myanmar has a tropical climate and the change of seasons is determined by the precipitation.
There are three seasons:
- a cool season without rain (end of October - end of February;
- a hot and dry season (early March - end of May);
- a rainy season (June - October).
Myanmar's principal commercial partners are Thailand, China, Singapore, Malaysia, India and Japan.
70% of the population cultivates the land while only 10% works in industry.
IMPORTS: Myanmar imports textiles, crude oil, cement and materials for construction, plastic materials, fertilizers and vehicles.
EXPORTS: rice, timber, fish, natural gas, clothing. Another important source of income comes from the export of precious stones and rubies, considered among the finest in the world.
In the most recent years Myanmar has registered constant growth in its PIL at rates over 5%.
- The central bank is The Central Bank of Myanmar
- Most purchases and transactions are still made in cash
- The most widely accepted foreign currency is the US dollar, but they must be new, printed after 2006 and uncut
- The land under cultivation represents 18% of the total territory
- The primary plant under cultivation is rice
- Cattle breeding and fishing are also important sources of income
- The forests furnish prized timbers such as teak, of which Myanmar is the world's leading producer as well as bamboo, pynkado and rubber trees.
- There are important reserves of petroleum in both the central and coastal zones
- The extraction of natural gas along the Irrawaddy river and on the coast of the gulf of Martaban is very important Lead, zinc, tin and tungsten are also extracted
- The availability of energy, which is potentially enormous and a prerequisite for development in the country, is actually scarce because much of the production is exported.
The areas connected with agriculture, mineral activity, textiles and clothing are evolving rapidly. The following sectors are attracting investments of foreign capital both as 100% of financing and in the form of JV with local companies:
- The assembly and production of small agricultural machinery and investments in small farms
- The production and support in the sale of products
- The construction of industries of transformation of agricultural products
- Mining Industry
- Myanmar offers optimal opportunities to investors, who are able to bring added value to the table, either in terms of capital or of technological innovation
- Textile Industry
- Among the manufacturing industries, textile/clothing is the sector which offers the best prospects for development and is second among exports only to natural gas.
The state of the country's infrastructure is poor and needs to be developed beginning with electrical energy and transport ( roads, ports, railways ) in order to maintain the current pace of growth into the future. Telecommunications are also underdeveloped: the population has little access to telephones, whether fixed or mobile and internet access is available principally in the large cities.
The development of the infrastructure is therefore another of the areas requiring immediate intervention.
The sector has been booming since 2011. Tourists entering the country numbered around 600,000 in 2012 and rose to 1 million in 2013 up to 2.9 in 2016. It is foreseen that the annual number of tourists will reach eventually 7.5 million by 2020. Despite this growth, the capacity for tourist accommodation has not seen a proportional increase, whether in availability or in quality.